Cigarette Smoking is one of the dangerous relaxations for someone wish to live or have a healthy life, as we hear the reminder cigarette smoking is dangerous to our health. Large number of men and some women are smoking cigarettes. Cigarette is a bony thin roll of thinly cut tobacco in a rolled paper use for smoking. Tobacco is the main ingredient in making cigarette it is a leafy green plant that usually found in warm areas. For tobacco to grow, farmers used different chemicals such as, fertilizers to make the soil wealthy and insecticides to kill the insects that destroy the tobacco. Cigarette for many users in fun they said but did we all know that the main cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking? But pipe and cigar smokers are still the higher chance to get lung cancer than non smokers. Breathing in other people’s cigarette smoke or the passive smoking increases the danger of lung cancer, but the most victim of it is the smokers.
Lung cancer or the lung carcinoma is a wicked lung tumor characterized by hysterical cell growth in tissues of the lung or abnormal cells. If untreated, it may bring more disaster for someone’s life and health the cell can spread to the lung by metastasis process and may spread to other parts of the body. The lung cancer that begin and found from lung itself is known as primary lung cancers, they are called carcinomas came from epithelial cells. It’s divided into two primary types, the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and the other type is known as non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Its primary symptoms are coughing, chest pains, coughing with blood, and shortness of breath and chest pains. 85% of cigarette smokers had a case of lung cancer and 10-15% cases occur in non smokers. These cases are caused by not just one source by also the combination of different air pollution such as exposure to radon gas, asbestos, and every so often cause by genetic factors. Lung cancer may be notice ad detected by on chest radiographs as well as computed tomography or CT scans. By the test of bronchoscopy or CT scan guidance the diagnosis may confirm.
Different Types of Lung Cancer
- Small cell lung cancer – is also named as oat cell cancer. This type of Lung cancer is very rare on smokers about 10%-15% of lung cancers are report to be small cell lung cancers. This type of lung cancer is likely to spread rapidly. This is usually caused by smoking. It is called Small Lung cancer because the cancer cells look small and typically filled with nucleus it may observe under microscopic examinations. Approximately 12% of every Lung cancer patient diagnosed with this type of particular disease.
This type of disease is uncommon to develop to non smokers. It is somewhat spreads early so doctors suggest curing it by chemotherapy. It common symptoms is chest pain, Cough, out of breath, Loss of appetite, Phlegm, Weakness, Fever, Swallowing difficulty, Changing voice and Facial Swelling. If symptoms persevere is it better to check for medical examinations or assistant so it will be treated early.
Limited stage: This stage, cancer is found on chest, involving just one part of the lung and can be treated with radiation therapy
Extensive stage: this stage, cancer has spread on chest other regions or outside the chest and often to other body parts.
Since, SCLC spreads rapidly, treatment always include chemotherapy a type of drugs that a like cancer. It is usually given throughout the vein. This kind of treatment chemotherapy and radiation may help the patient relieve the symptoms but not really mean it can cure the disease. Radiation is one of the ways that use powerful x-rays or other radiation to destroy cancer cells. It is employ and make use to treat cancer along with chemotherapy, if surgery can’t be made. It can relieve the cancer to spread to the bones and relieve other symptoms such as breathing problems. Chemotherapy may prevent the cancer to spread to the brain. Because in some cases even there is no symptoms cancer cells may spread to the brain. Surgery may also be done if the tumor is only one and not spread already. Chemotherapy and radiation should apply also to ensure to kill the cancer cells after the surgery.
- Adenocarcinomas- This type of lung cancer is common form that occurs when unusual lung cells develop and out of control. It may result to a tumor. That may be spread to other body parts like liver, bones, adrenal glands and many more. It contains malevolent tissues together with gland or duct formation. It is formed in mucus and result to a cancer. The causes of having this kind of cancer and may contribute the risk of having it are; Smoking Cigarette, Even for non smokers has a risk of having lung cancer when they breath or inhale the tobacco smoke, Exposing to Radon gas a radioactive gas odorless gas. Miners are the common people expose to breathe in that type of gas. Expose to asbestos, a fireproofing materials, automobile, Insulation minerals and materials. Construction workers, Aircon repairer auto mechanics, miners are the customary victims expose in this kind of particles. The people who frequently exposed in asbestos have a greater risk to develop mesothelioma, a cancer type that starts in the tissue around the lungs. Other causes are to be exposed in arsenic, gasoline, coal products, diesel, uranium, vinyl chloride and mustard gas.
This type of lung cancer may detect by chest x-ray and CT scan. Like other type of lung cancer it symptoms is weight loss, poor appetite, wheezing, breathing problems, chest pain, and fever and coughing with blood.
If the cancer spreads to other body parts, patient may experiences other symptoms such as cone pain if it is spread to the bone. It should be examined to be treated properly.
With the use of CT scan and X-ray it may diagnose Adenocarcinomas, May also used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide detailed picture of you organ it if differ from x-ray because it use magnetic radio waves to produce image and positron emission tomography (PET) scan look at the tissue gathered more than the used of anatomy.
There are tests that may detect this disease may include the following:
Sputum test, Coughed-up mucus is test out for cancer cells, Biopsy A section of abnormal lung tissue is detached and examined in the laboratory by the use of microscope, Bronchoscopy A camera was passed down to the throat to check and examined the certain organ, CT, bone and PET Scan, to get lung images, Thoracotomy. A larger cut in the chest to get tissue for examination, Fine-needle aspiration, with the use of CT scan, a particular infected area can be known. A tiny needle is then put in into that part of the lung. To the a little bit of tissue sample for examination, Thoracentesis, there is fluid build in the chest, it can be drained with a disinfected needle. The fluid sample will be used to detect cancer cells and VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopy); this type of test, a surgeon inserts a plastic bendable pipe tube with a video camera on the end captivated on the chest through an opening or incision to look or see for cancer space.
After the test or assessments held, it is identifies as Sate I-IV or A, B stages according to the tumor size and the spread different parts.
- Squamous cell carcinomas- This type of lung cancer begins in the tissue outline in the air passage of the lungs. It was a flat surface wrapping the airway’s cell. Usually found on the left or sometimes at the right bronchus the main part of the lung with trachea. It is common to smokers. This type of disease it also called epidermoid carcinoma. It can be found earlier other than any lung cancer type due to its location. Recently the cases of Squamous cell carcinomas have been decreases on number and adenocarcinoma has been growing.
The usual symptoms of Squamous cell carcinomas lung cancer consist of coughing with blood, wheezing and extreme coughing. They usually tend to cause symptoms earlier because it is located on the airways. It can lead to infectious pneumonia or atelectasis, a collapse on the lung’s part because the airway has been obstructed. The most common cause of Squamous cell carcinoma is pancoast syndrome or sulcus syndrome. It is describe as nasty neoplasm of the superior sulcus of the lung with disparaging lesions of the thoracic inlet.
- Large cell carcinomas – This is so called large cell lung cancer because the cells look large or huge rounded under a microscope examination. This type of lung cancer is likely to grow moderately and somehow quickly. This is a form of non-small cell lung cancer. Which 80% of cases are part of this and 10% cases are tending to be large cell carcinoma lung cancer. It was occur at the outer region of the lungs.
Unlike the other lung cancer symptoms the symptoms of having a large cell carcinomas is such as extreme cough and coughing with blood is less common for it is begin at the outer parts of the lungs. Until you may discover that it is a disease. Usual symptoms of it are back, chest and shoulder pain, fatigue and mild shortness of breath. In the view of the fact that this type of cancer develop outside the lung it can develop fluid between the spaces of the lung tissues called pleural effusions and occupy the chest wall. That is the reason why patient with large cell carcinomas had a breathing problem and pain chest.
Large cell carcinomas can also lead to the so called paraneoplastic syndrome where hormone like material secrete and may cause enlargement of the breasts known as gynecomastia.
There are four stages of large cell carcinomas lung cancer as follows:
Stage 1 – The cancer cells are found within the lungs and haven’t spread yet to any lymph nodes.
Stage 2 – The cancer is now spread to the lymph nodes or at the main bronchus.
Stage 3 – The tissue near the lungs invade with cancer cells.
Stage 4 – The cancer has already been found to other part of the body.
- Bronchial carcinoids– This type of disease is a tumor that occurred to a bronchus or in a larger bronchus. 60% are tending to be within the tracheo-bronchial. This type of lung cancer is more to be aggressive typical carcinoid for it is neuroendocrine neoplasms that range from substandard characteristic carcinoids.
Due to bronchial obstruction, symptoms such as pneumonia, bronchiectasis, lung enlargement, emphysema, atelectasis is common symptoms because of airway obstruction. Other symptoms are cough, wheezing and concurrent of pulmonary infections.
Central wound are usually seen round or ovoid, marked homogeneous contrast, high vascularity, usually eccentric, and often ranging from 2-5cm.
- Mesothelioma- The rare type of lung cancer and can affect the covering of the lung. This is a membrane cancer that lines inside the chest called mesothelium and covers the lung. It is common to people who are exposed to asbestos or inhale asbestos particles. Such as Construction worker, auto mechanics, miners and many more. An individual who’s exposed in asbestos didn’t see the symptoms earlier but after they have been exposed to asbestos.
Asbestos fibers may cause inflammation of internal tissue that develops Mesothelioma. Even though this is a harmful product, asbestos companies still producing this type of product. Industrial and commercial areas may be exposed to asbestos
There are three types of mesothelioma namely; Pleural mesothelioma, the most typical type with 70% cases. It occurs in pleura the lining in the lung. . Peritoneal mesothelioma which be seen at the abdominal cavity lining and the pericardial mesothelioma that develops in the line of the heart called pericardium.
Like the other types of lung cancer the Mesothelioma may be treated with the used or method of Radiation, a cancer cells destroyer, Chemotherapy and surgery. In recent times, those Chemotherapy drugs such as Alimta and Csiplatin can help to cure the Mesothelioma.
- Lung Carcinoid Tumor- This is one of the uncommon type of lung cancer and usually slower to grow or spread other than any lung cancer type. It is composed of neuroendocrine cells, a special kind of cells. To know more about Lung Carcinoid Tumor should be familiar to the function of the lungs and to neuroendocrine system.
This Lung Carcinoid Tumor is known to be lung carcinoids the cancer that starts from the lung. The lungs are 2 organs in your chest look like a sponge the right side have 3 sections and the left has 2 section called lobes. There are parts of the lungs such as trachea or the windpipe, the trachea has 2 tubes the bronchi and bronchioles the smaller one. And the alveoli which are small air bags that is located at the end of the bronchioles. Receiving oxygen and free the carbon dioxide is the main function of the lungs.
The thin lining that surrounds the lungs is called pleura its function is to protect the lungs and help it to back in its normal size as the lungs contract and expands during breathing. The space in the chest has a pleural cavity. Diaphragm is a thin dome shape that separates the abdomen and the chest. It moves up and down, for the air out of our lungs.
Neouroendocrine cells make adrenaline hormones and it help the other types of lung cell to grow. Also it helps the air and blood to flow normally. It may distinguish the amount of oxygen we breathe as well as the carbon dioxide we exhale. Lung Carcinoid Tumor is a mid way tumors for it is slowly growing.
There are two types of carcinoid lung tumors as follows:
- Typical carcinoid tumors – it is more usual than atypical carcinoid lung tumors this is slower to grow and rare further than lungs.
- Atypical carcinoid tumors – Is a more destructive type of rather than typical carcinoid. This is 10% among carcinoid lung tumors.
- Large cell neuroendocrine tumors- This type of lung cancer is sometimes called lung neuroendocrine tumors. And 5% of lung cancer patient has large cell neuroendocrine tumors. Most of this is grow slowly and spread often.
Large cell neuroendocrine tumors is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer because they are roughly the similar when it comes to rapid growth though it is, the treatment is same to Non-small cell lung cancer. In the year 1970s, large cell neuroendocrine tumors were classified into 3 categories, the metasta-size or typical carcinoid tumors which are infrequent type of disease. Small-cell carcinomas, which are normally, metastasize and dismal in prognosis. This lung cancer type is a rare pulmonary tumor diagnosed by neuroendocrine morphology with a high grade features. Studies prove that survival is small than the cases of non-small cell carcinoma and other large cell carcinomas.
It signs and symptoms are:
- Weight loss
- Chest infections
- Breathing problems
- Peripheral lung tumors
If those symptoms continue, it is better and good decision to seek and ask for medical assistant.
9. Non-small cell lung cancer– This type of lung cancer is about 85% cases of lung cancer patients. Sometimes it is difficult to know the specific type of Non-small cell lung cancer it should be test through biopsy and microscope.
There are common types of Non-small cell lung cancer as follows:
- Adenocarcinoma is the most ordinary form of lung cancer and has a lot as report cases among both men and women in the United States.
- Squamous cell carcinoma- it is develops in the bronchial tubes lining. Also known as epidermoid carcinoma and
- Large cell carcinomas.
The four phase of NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER
Stage 1: The cancer is located in the lungs only.
Stage 2: The cancer cells spread nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 3: The Cancer cells are now located in the lung, in the chest and lymph nodes. It is also a local highly developed disease. It has 2 subtypes:
- Stages IIIA, a case where the cancer cells only spread to lymph nodes.
- Stage IIIB, a case where the cancer has spread to lymph nodes and opposites side as well as to collar bone.
Stage 4: This Case is the most complex stage of lung cancer, where it is spread to the bones, chest, lungs, and to other body parts.
- Unknown type – This type of lung cell is not possible to identify the specific type if only few cells are examined through biopsy. It is also difficult if the cell is undeveloped or the so called undifferentiated cells. So, if the patient has unknown type the doctor will prefer to say that the patient has undifferentiated non small cell lung cancer.
Still, the treatment to this type of lung cancer is same with the other, because the main purpose is to kill the cancer cells. And also the symptoms is just the same with the common lung cancer disease such as is weight loss, poor appetite, wheezing, breathing problems, chest pain, and fever and coughing with blood.
- Cancer that has spread into the lung- This type of lung cancer is starts in the lung. It is a Metastatic lung cancer that occurs and spread on its original location. Also called the primary lung cancer. And the cancer that spreads from the lung to the different part of the body is called secondary lung cancer.
It symptoms includes, Cough, Breath problems, Weight loss, Chest pain. The test is like the other lung cancer type which is X-ray and CT scan. Other treatment may include Surgery, Radio therapy, and Cancer killer drugs, Chemotherapy and other therapy that can relieve the disease.
Men, women, smokers or non smoker can get lung cancer. Lung cancer may lead to death if untreated. One of the best things to be safe from this kind of disease is to have a healthy life. Avoid smoking as well as avoid to the hazardous particles and air pollution’s. We must also eat right and healthy food as one of our proper diet.
So, if someone has experienced the symptoms of lung cancer it is better to ask for medical assistance and examinations. Live a healthy life and remember too much can lead you to unwanted disease.